By: Eng. Evaristo Amaro

As the demand for bandwidth increases, they have had to seek
new methods for high-speed data transmission and higher capacity. The
demand has no limit and there is no glimpse of a future where it will stop; and fiber optics
traditional has found its limits. As light travels down a solid fiber, it
encounters physical problems that prevent light from traveling at its maximum speed due to
because it loses energy by encountering these obstacles. Remember that bits travel in
form of pulses of light with a certain energy that is lost as it progresses,
limiting its speed and therefore the distance; that’s where he finds his limits.

Advancement in this field has led to HCF (Hollow Core Fiber) technology which is a
technology that is allowing research into new ways of transmitting light. The
difference against a normal optical fiber is that instead of using the same material of the
fiber (glass) air or a gas is used inside. Yes, it is hollow!
In this type of fiber it has been found that light travels 50% faster than in normal fiber.
traditional since it travels through the air and the walls are made of polymers that have losses of 1
dB/cm while traditional silicon has a loss of 9 dB/cm, a difference
considerable. (1,2)

Las ventajas son las mismas que la fibra de núcleo sólido, pero promete una latencia
menor de hasta 1.5 ms por km (3). Un cable de esta tecnología puede contener varias de
estas fibras en el interior y su terminado en conector tradicional lo hace fácil conectar
Esta tecnología aun esta en estudios y existe, pero para aplicaciones reales se limita a un
aproximado de 2-3 kms de y está aún lejos de estar disponible de manera comercial.
Aún hay temas por resolver como la polarización y la transmisión a largas distancias, pero
todos los esfuerzos e investigaciones actuales trabajan en ellos, diversos laboratorios
buscan llegar a los parámetros adecuados. El principal problema es que si bien la luz al
viajar en el aire tiene menos resistencia es menos susceptible a la amplificación,
afortunadamente el equipo de Luc Thévenaz, director del grupo de fibra óptica de la escuela
de ingeniería EPFL (École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) en Suiza encontró en sus
investigaciones la manera de comprimir las moléculas de aire en clusters espaciados de
manera regular a fin de incrementar la amplitud de la onda.

The advantages are the same as solid core fiber, but it promises lower latency
less than 1.5 ms per km (3). A cable of this technology can contain several of
these fibers inside and its traditional connector termination makes it easy to connect
This technology is still under study and exists, but for real applications it is limited to a
approximately 2-3 kms from and is still far from being commercially available.
There are still issues to be resolved such as polarization and transmission over long distances, but
all current efforts and research work on them, various laboratories
they seek to reach the appropriate parameters. The main problem is that although the light at
traveling in air has less resistance is less susceptible to amplification,
fortunately the team of Luc Thévenaz, director of the fiber optic group of the school
engineering EPFL (École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) in Switzerland found in his
researches how to compress air molecules into spaced clusters of
regularly in order to increase the amplitude of the wave.

Another current problem is the radius of curvature supported, which at wavelengths
short has a very large loss which reduces the transmission band. For
example, curvatures modify the refractive index, but on the other hand it is calculable
since this distribution is symmetrical and by varying the frequency of the emitter one can
compensate for these factors. (4)
There are multiple designs for this type of fibers which have been widely studied.
so that they fulfill their objective and give them the desired characteristics, in addition to the
current technologies allow us, for example, to make 3D printing of this type of fibers

diverse fibers of microstructured cores that allow a low loss guide in the
order of the terahertz. Manufacturing using 3D printing to create anti-aging fibers
resonant tests shows that it is a fast method with a high cost-benefit. (5)
In summary, HCF fibers represent a technology made for applications of
low latency and high demand that are also manufacturing possible. 5G? Maybe he
time will tell us how far the technology of these fibers and their applications will go

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